On Thursday, approximately 10AM UTC, we'll be performing our MediaWiki 1.34 deployment. Please expect some downtime, we apologise in advance for any inconvenience!
John the Scot (First Earl, Third Creation) Last Anglo-Norman Earl
(Kings: Henry III)
Another indirect claim and another possible poisoning.
- Parents: David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon by his wife Maud of Chester (1171-1233), daughter of Hugh de Kevelioc (Earl of Chester).
- Spouse: Elen ferch Llywelyn, daughter of Llywelyn the Great
- Brothers and sisters: Henry of Huntingdon, Robert of Huntingdon, Margaret of Huntingdon, Isobel of Huntingdon, Ada of Huntingdon, Matilda of Huntingdon
- Children: none
A well-connected Earl
John of Scotland or John de Scotia (c. 1207 – 6 June 1237), sometimes known as "the Scot", was an Anglo-Scottish magnate, the son of David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon by his wife Maud of Chester (1171-1233), herself the daughter of Hugh de Kevelioc (Earl of Chester). David of Scotland (c. 1144 – 17 June 1219) was the youngest surviving son of Henry of Scotland, so his paternal grandfather was David I of Scotland.
John married Elen ferch Llywelyn, daughter of Llywelyn the Great, in about 1222. The records of Llywelyn's family are confusing, and it is not certain which of his children were illegitimate, but Elen appears to have been his legitimate daughter by Joan, "Lady of Wales", herself illegitimate daughter of King John of England.
John became Earl of Huntingdon in 1219 on the death of his father, and later Earl of Chester in 1232 due to his connection to the previous earl, Ranulf de Blondeville, who was his mother's brother. The granting of the earldom of Chester to one of earl David Ceann mhor's sons was probably an attempt to reduce conflict on the Northern Marches of England. There was some conflict over the succession to the Earldom but this was in the courts rather than on the battlefield. In proceedings headed, "Placita coram Domini Rege apud Westm: a die Paschæ in XV. dies." [22nd April, 1235.] it is recorded that:
- John, Earl of Chester and Huntingdon, was summoned to answer the complaint of Hugh de Albini, William, Earl of Ferrars, and Agnes his wife, and Hawise de Quency, Countess of Lincoln, that he had deforced them of their reasonable share of the inheritance of Ralph, formerly Earl of Chester, and of which Ralph had died seised in the county of Chester, taking into account the shares they as well as John had received in other parts of the same inheritance; and they say that the said Earl holds the capital messuage in Chester, and Hugh de Albini has Coventry, with other lands; William de Ferrars and Agnes his wife have Certeslegh (Chartley), with other lands; and Hawise de Quency has Bullingbrock, with other lands. And the Earl of Chester appeared by his attorney, and pleaded he ought not to answer to this plaint and summons, which referred to lands in Cheshire, because the King's writ did not run in Cheshire; and he asked that the King should maintain his liberties such as he and his ancestors had held, and that the said complainants should appear in the county of Chester, where he would do them full justice. The Earl of Ferrars and the other plaintiffs who are heirs and coparceners of the said inheritance pray the judgment of the King. The suit is respited to the morrow of St. John the Baptist, to be heard before the King.
John leaves little mark on history, althought one source put him on the side of the Barons led by Richard Marshal in revolt (1233) against Henry III:
- Henry III soon after the suppression of an insurrection headed by John Earl of Chester and Richard Earl of Pembroke principal Lords Marchers resolved upon the conquest of Wales with his own proper forces The Earl of Chester dying soon after without male issue the King resumed by composition made with the Earl's four sisters and heirs the county palatine of Chester granted by the Norman Conqueror to the first Earl his kinsman and with it the greater part of the county of Flint which the Earls of Chester as Lords Marchers had won from the Welsh - "The History & Antiquities of the Town of Ludlow, and Its Ancient Castle; With Lives of the Presidents, and Descriptive and Historical Accounts of Gentlemen's Seats, Villages, &c" By Thomas Wright.
There is a possible reference to how this insurrection was settled in the patent rolls - see Feb 3rd entry. This entry refers both to the Earl of Chester and to Gilbert Marshal who was the brother of Richard Marshal. In 1233 Richard Marshal had made an alliance with the Welsh Llywelyn the Great (John's father-in-law). Marshal crossed from Wales to Ireland, where Peter des Roches had instigated his enemies to attack him, and in April 1234 he was overpowered and wounded, and died a prisoner.
There also appears to be more intrigue here as Matthew Paris states that the Constable of Chester (John de Lacy):
- "was brought over to the king's party, with John le Scot, Earl of Chester, by Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, for a bribe of 1,000 marks".
By 1236 John was well in with the king, he carried the broken sword "Curtana" at the coronation of Eleanor twelve-year old wife of Henry III.
The shadow of yet more treachery is suggested in Glover's "history and gazetteer of the county of Derby":
- In eight years after the death of earl Ranulph, expired his nephew, John the Scot, the last earl of Chester, without issue, poisoned by Helena his wife, the daughter of Llewellyn, prince of Wales. These unhappy espousals had been brought about by the policy of earl Ranulph, who by means of them secured certain present privileges, and expected that the regalities ofthat old British principality would one day be enjoyed by his sister's descendants. On the demise of earl John the Scot, the prerogatives of the palatinate were assumed by the crown, on the plea " tie tarn prteclara dotninatio inter colot Jiceminarum dividí contingeret." — " Lest it should happen that so illustrious a dominion should fall under the divided sway of the distaffs of women."
One curious fact about John's death is found in the "calender of patent rolls". While John is generally accepted to have died on June 6th/7th 1237 (dates vary), the patent rolls record that Henry III was sending his condolences on June 6th 1237. The poison story turns up again in the "Notitia cestriensis: or Historical notices of the diocese of Chester" which contains the footnote:
- John Scot (so called because a Scot by birth) was the last Earl of Chester and Huntingdon, and died June 7th, 1237, without issue male, having married Helen, daughter of Lewellin, Prince of Wales, by whom he was poisoned, according to the testimony of several ancient chroniclers.
And poison can be found again, perhaps here it originated, in Matthew Paris (who is not always to be believed):
- About this time, too, John Scott, earl of Chester, closed his life about Whitsuntide, having been poisoned by the agency of his wife, the daughter of Llewellyn. The life of the bishop of Lincoln, too, was also attempted by the same means, and he was with difficulty recalled from the gates of death. In the same year, in the week before Whitsuntide, there fell storms of hail which exceeded the size of apples, killing the sheep ; and they were followed by continued rain.
A further complication goes back to Hugh of Cyfeiliog and the controversy around the legitimacy of Amicia. If Hugh did have another wife prior to Bertrade, then John would not have had quite so good a claim.
The Earldom reverted to the Crown in 1237 on the death of John the Scot (aged 30). However, the reversion was not as simple as most histories describe. William de Forz (Latinised as de Fortibus, sometimes spelt Deforce), 4th Earl of Albemarle, (died 1260) claimed that, as a Palatinate, it could not be divided, and his wife should get it as the oldest coheir. William got the title, but the court decided that the lands should be divided. However, he and his wife (Christina (d. 1246), daughter and co-heiress of Alan, Lord of Galloway) quitclaimed the earldom to Henry III in 1241 in exchange for modest lands elsewhere. So the last Earl of Chester may be described as William de Forz, and he held the title for four years, only a little less than John the Scot. William de Forz played a conspicuous part in the reign of Henry III of England, notably in the "Mad Parliament" of 1258. William's father died in 1241 on a ship on the Mediterranean, was described as "a feudal adventurer of the worst type" and was excommunicated end 1215 and also 1221!
The Earldom was formally annexed to the Crown in 1246 when the rest of the honour of Chester (the land) was bought from the rest of Ranulph's sisters by Henry III. King Henry III passed the Lordship of Chester, but not the title of Earl, to his son the Lord Edward in 1254, and as King Edward I he conferred the title and the lands of the Earldom first on son, Edward, the first English Prince of Wales. By that time the Earldom of Chester consisted of two counties: Cheshire and Flintshire.
Elen ferch Llywelyn re-married, her second husband being Sir Robert de Quincy (he had a brother, also called Robert, who married Hawise of Chester, Countess of Lincoln, sister and another co-heiress to Ranulf de Blondeville). Their daughter, another Hawise, was married to Baldwin Wake, Lord Wake of Lidel. Hawise and Baldwin’s granddaughter, the unfortunate Margaret Wake, was the mother of Joan of Kent, later Princess of Wales. Thus the blood of Llywelyn Fawr passed into the English royal family through Richard II - who was deposed in 1399 and briefly imprisoned at Chester Castle.
- "Patrick Delaforce Family History Research Chapter 38".;
- More family history for the Earls of Chester;
Robin Hood's brother?
According to some, John had an older brother, Robert Le Scot, who some believe to be the dispossessed title holder of the earldom of 'Huntington' upon which Anthony Munday (1560-1633) based his "Robin Hood" plays and forever connected the Robin Hood ballads with the earldom of Huntingdon. Note, there are a number of locations titled Huntingdon or Huntington, one is actually a place North of the city of York, the lands of which were owned largely by David I of Scotland who was John Le Scot's great grandfather. Others are at Huntington in Scotland, Huntington in Herefordshire and of course Huntingdon in today's Cambridgeshire. The story is discussed in more detail under Ranulf de Blondeville.
The Sisters Legacy
John's heirs were the grand-daughters of Maud of Chester (the sister of Ranulf of Blundeville):
- Christiana, wife of William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle,
- Dervorguilla, wife of John de Balliol, and the two daughters of his eldest sister:
- Margaret, wife of Alan of Galloway, and his two younger sisters
- Isobel, wife of Robert de Bruce (mother of Robert de Bruce), and
- Ada, wife of Henry de Hastings.
Alan of Galloway was married three times. His first wife was a daughter of Roger de Lacy, Constable of Chester. His second marriage, which took place in 1209, was to Margaret (d. before 1228), eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon (d. 1219). His third marriage was to Rose (d. after 1237), daughter of Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Ulster (d. 1242). Alan had numerous children from his first two marriages, although only daughters reached adulthood. His eldest daughter from his first marriage, Helen, married Roger de Quincy (d. 1264). One daughter from his second marriage, Christina (or Christiana) (d. 1246), married William de Fortibus (d. 1260). Another daughter from his second marriage, Dervorguilla(d. 1290), married John de Balliol (d. 1314). Alan also had bastard son, Thomas, who survived into adulthood.
Three of the sisters of John were therefore the ancestors of Balliol, Bruce and John Hastings - all claimants to the Scottish throne on upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, which caused the extinction of the legitimate line of "William the Lion" (John the Scot's uncle).
With the death of Alexander III of Scotland in 1286 without a male heir, the throne of Scotland had become the possession of the three-year old Margaret, Maid of Norway, the granddaughter of the King. As Margaret was never crowned or otherwise inaugurated, and never set foot on what was then Scots soil during her lifetime, there is, of course, some doubt about whether she should be regarded as a "Queen of Scots". In 1290 the "Guardians of Scotland", who had been appointed to govern the realm during the young Queen's minority, drew up the "Treaty of Birgham", a marriage contract between Margaret and the then five-year old Edward of Caernarvon, the heir to the English throne (later Edward II). The treaty contained the provision that although any offspring of this marriage would be heir to the crowns of both England and Scotland, the latter kingdom should be "separate, apart and free in itself without subjection to the English Kingdom". Unfortunately, Margaret died while returning to Scotland. Edward I then had a court set up to see which of the claimants should inherit the throne - it consisted of 104 auditors plus Edward himself as president (what a set-up!). David of Huntingdon's descendants were the primary candidates for the throne. The two most notable being John Balliol and Robert Bruce who represented descent through David's daughters Margaret and Isobel respectively. The arguments of these three descendants of Hugh de Kevelioc were as follows:
- John Hastings, an Englishman with extensive estates in Scotland, could not succeed to the throne by any of the normal rules governing feudal legacy and instead had his lawyers argue that Scotland was not a true kingdom at all, based, amongst other things, on the fact that Scots kings were traditionally neither crowned nor anointed. As such, by the normal rules of feudal law the kingdom should be split amongst the direct descendants of the co-heiresses of David I. Hastings was grandson of Ada, third daughter of David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon, who was a grandson of King David I therefore he had some support for this tenuous claim. Unsurprisingly, a court made up of Scots nobles rejected these arguments out of hand.
- John Balliol had the simplest, and thus by some measure the strongest claim of the four. By the tradition of primogeniture he was the rightful claimant, and that tradition had been followed in choosing heirs to the Scottish throne since King Edgar in 1097. He was a great-great-great-grandson of King David I through his mother and therefore one generation further than his main rival Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, (grandfather of the future Robert the Bruce), being senior in genealogical primogeniture but not in proximity of blood. He argued that the other Scottish claimants (including Bruce) had already tacitly acknowledged the tradition of primogeniture in allowing Margaret of Norway to claim the throne. Balliol also argued that the Kingdom of Scotland was, as royal estate, indivisible as an entity. This was necessary to prevent the kingdom being split equally amongst the heirs as Hastings was suggesting should be done.
- Robert Bruce was the next in line to the throne according to proximity of blood. Robert was son of Robert Bruce, 4th Lord of Annandale and Isobel of Huntingdon, the second daughter of David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon and Matilda de Kevilloc of Chester. David in turn was the son of Henry of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland and Ada de Warenne; Henry's parents were King David I of Scotland and Maud of Northumberland. As such, his arguments were that this was a more suitable way to govern the succession than primogeniture. His lawyers suggested that this was the case in most successions and as such had become something of a 'natural law'. Unfortunately for Bruce, the Scots tradition for the preceding 200 years had been demonstrably different, relying on primogeniture instead. His grandson was Robert the Bruce who became king of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329.
Edward I gave judgement on November 17, 1292 in favour of John Balliol. and he was inaugurated accordingly king of Scotland at Scone, 30 November 1292, St. Andrew's Day. Edward I, had coerced recognition as "Lord Paramount of Scotland", the feudal superior of the realm, and steadily undermined John's authority. Edward demanded homage to be paid towards himself, legal authority over the Scottish King in any disputes brought against him by his own subjects, contribution towards the costs for the defence of England, and military support in his war against France. He treated Scotland as a feudal vassal state, and repeatedly humiliated the new king. Tiring of their deeply compromised king, the direction of affairs was allegedly taken out of his hands by the leading men of the kingdom, who appointed a council of twelve at Stirling in July 1295. These men concluded a treaty of mutual assistance with France, which became known as the "Auld Alliance". In retaliation Edward I invaded, commencing the Wars of Scottish Independence.
John the Scot would have had to have lived to the age of 85 to have been around in 1292. If he had a son, that son (whose mother would have been Elen ferch Llywelyn, herself daughter of Llywelyn the Great), or possibly a grandson, would have had a legitimate claim to the throne of Scotland as well as the Earldom of Chester - and very good Welsh connections. Had the Earldom of Chester continued in this manner, Edward I would have faced serious problems in both his attempts to conquer Wales and his wars with Scotland.